As this was centuries after Cahokia was abandoned by its original inhabitants, the Cahokia tribe was not necessarily descended from the earlier Mississippian-era people.
The decline of the city coincides with the Little Ice Agealthough by then, the three-fold agriculture remained well-established throughout temperate North America.
A later addition to the site, when the palisade was constructed, it cut through and separated some pre-existing neighborhoods. It is part of the sophisticated engineering displayed throughout the site.
Although it was home to only about 1, people before circaits population grew rapidly after that date. The mounds are divided into three different types: Development[ edit ] A map showing approximate areas of various Mississippian and related cultures.
In the early 21st century, new residential areas were found to the west of Cahokia as a result of archeological excavations, increasing estimates of area population. Analysis of sediment from beneath Horseshoe Lake has revealed that two major floods The cahokian civilization essay in the period of settlement at Cahokia, in roughly — and — Along with the early phase of Monks Mound, an overarching urban layout was established at the site.
Due to the lack of other evidence for warfare, the palisade may have been more for ritual The cahokian civilization essay formal separation than for military purposes. The east and northwest sides of Monks Mound were twice excavated in August during an attempt to avoid erosion due to slumping.
Diseases transmitted among the large, dense urban population are another possible cause of decline. Monks Moundfor example, covers 14 acres 5. It maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such exotic items as copper, Mill Creek chert and whelk shells.
Excavation on the top of Monks Mound has revealed evidence of a large building, likely a temple or the residence of the paramount chiefwhich would have been seen throughout the city.
The game was played by rolling a disc-shaped chunky stone across the field. Cahokia was located in a strategic position near the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouriand Illinois Rivers.
This period appears to have fostered an agricultural revolution in upper North America, as the three-fold crops of maize, beans legumesand gourds squash were developed and adapted or bred to the temperate climates of the north from their origins in Mesoamerica.
Mound building at this location began with the emergent Mississippian cultural period, about the 9th century CE. The causeway itself may have been seen as a symbolic "Path of Souls". Although some evidence exists of occupation during the Late Archaic period around BCE in and around the site,  Cahokia as it is now defined was settled around CE during the Late Woodland period.
Four large plazas were established to the east, west, north, and south of Monks Mound. To date, mounds have been located, 68 of which are in the park area. Cahokia is located near the center of this map in the upper part of the Middle Mississippi area.
A related problem was waste disposal for the dense population, and Cahokia became unhealthy from polluted waterways. Monks Mound An illustration of Monks Mound showing it with fanciful proportions Incised sandstone tablet of a Birdman found in during excavations into the east side of Monks Mound Monks Mound is the largest structure and central focus of the city: The men would throw spears where they thought the chunky stone would land.
It was built with a symbolic quadripartite worldview and oriented toward the four cardinal directions with the main east-west and north-south axes defined with Monks Mound near its center point.
These areas were repaired to preserve the mound. The mounds were later named after the Cahokia tribea historic Illiniwek people living in the area when the first French explorers arrived in the 17th century. Early in its history, Cahokia underwent a massive construction boom.
The game required a great deal of judgment and aim. One of the major problems that large centers like Cahokia faced was keeping a steady supply of food. Mill Creek chert, most notably, was used in the production of hoes, a high demand tool for farmers around Cahokia and other Mississippian centers.
Bartering, not money was used in trade. Each appeared to have had its own meaning and function. This is thought to have had symbolic associations to the builders in connection with their lunar maize goddess of the underworld.
Its bastions showed that it was mainly built for defensive purposes.The city of Cahokia, in modern-day Illinois, had a population of twenty thousand at its pinnacle in the s. With pyramids, mounds, and several large ceremonial areas, Cahokia was the hub of a way of life for millions of Native Americans before the society's decline and devastation by foreign diseases.
The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site / k ə ˈ h oʊ k i ə / is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (circa – CE) directly across the Mississippi River from modern St.
Louis, Missouri. The fate of the Cahokian people and their once-impressive city is mysterious. The decline of this great civilization is believed to have been gradual. Most historians agree that the Cahokians began abandoning the city around the s, and by CE the civilization was completely deserted.
Or click here to register. If you are a K–12 educator or student, registration is free and simple and grants you exclusive access to all of our online content, including primary sources, essays, videos, and more. The Cahokian civilization provides the basis for political, economic, and social developments that “changed the course of human history.” (Timothy Pauketat) After reading Timothy Pauketat’s insightful essay, “ Cahokia: A Pre-Columbian American City”, I was intrigued by the Cahokia’s people and culture.Download